The territory of the Republic of Croatia is so rich in remnants of tangible and intangible heritage that generations of our ancestors left us for safekeeping and careful management that we proudly leave them to our heirs, that it is simply impossible to imagine an escort from Germany, Slovenia, Austria or Hungary a quality way to conduct guidance throughout Croatia.Croatian tourist attractions and Croatian cultural foundations (sites, wholes and sights) are basically a fluid relationship between sights, markers and tourists, and Croatian tourist guides are continuous markers (interpreters and interpreters) of Croatian culture. I repeat a thousand times: without Croatian tourist guides in the real sector there is no cultural tourism in Croatia! Except in a bureaucratic document or instruction and scientific literature. You don’t expect tourists to visit legal acts or books while visiting our beautiful country to understand the symbols, meanings and values of our cultural expression or some valuable remnant from our rich past !?To all previous efforts of Croatian tourist guides to explain how tourist guides to historical sites, protected sites, historical urban units and religious sites can not be reduced to “providing services in tourism” of a directive or instruction, Croatian tourist guides were in front of a burst of gunfire instructions, under legal acts, suspicious and even incorrect reading of legal articles, EU directives that are extremely general, threats of sanctions, threats of penalties, threats, threats, threats, it is not known from whom and it is not clear what.Tourist guides of the Republic of Croatia were greeted by representatives of the competent institutions of the Republic of Croatia with a well-sharpened paper knife of bureaucratic regulations, instructions, directives, and unclear interpretations. And they cut themselves on that bureaucratic weapon, almost to the heart. If there is indeed a belief that “man the key to success in Croatian tourism“, Then one should ask to whom our representatives of tourism give the keys of the Croatian cultural identity and the Croatian cultural and historical heritage, the tangible and intangible. Who is really given the right to interpret our victorious Homeland War and the sovereignty won by blood and toil ?!Tourist guides of the Republic of Croatia really hope that employees and officials of government institutions and ministries who represent us do not intend to reduce Croatian tangible and intangible heritage and Croatian national identity to exchange value in the amount of an ordinary daily allowance of a questionable companion from Germany, Austria, Slovenia or Hungary !?We could then really call it a flagrant example of a vassal mentality towards certain representatives of predatory tourist capitalism from certain EU countries.Published by: Master of Science Vinko Bakija, senior lecturer at the Department of Tourism and Communication Sciences, University of Zadar RELATED NEWS:WHO IS INTERESTED IN THIS VULGARIZATION AND DEREGULATION OF THE PROVISION OF TOURISM GUIDE SERVICES IN CROATIA?
New research provides evidence that some forms of screen time are linked to an increase in anxiety and depression symptoms among adolescents.“It is very common to talk to our children about the negative consequences of alcohol use, smoking, and unsafe sex. However, nowadays, adolescents spend 6-7 hours in front of a digital screen, exposing themselves to information potentially dangerous for their mental health,” said study author Elroy Boers, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Montreal.“To my knowledge, fewer parents talk to their children about the potential negative consequences of screen time. More awareness is needed.” Share on Facebook LinkedIn Pinterest Share on Twitter Email The researchers examined data from 3,659 children who were surveyed annually from 7th grade through 10th grade. The teens were asked to self-report time spent in front of digital screens and specify the amount of time spent using social media, television, video games, and computers.The results, published in The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, found that a higher than average frequency of social media use, television viewing and computer use over the four-year period predicted more severe symptoms of anxiety.Another analysis of the same data, published in JAMA Pediatrics, found that a higher than average frequency of social media and television viewing predicted more severe symptoms of depression over the four year time frame.The findings highlight “the negative consequences of screen time for adolescents’ mental health,” Boers told PsyPost.“Two longitudinal studies have shown a robust effect of screen time on symptoms of depression and anxiety. Thus, parents, pediatricians, medics, and developers of health interventions aiming to reduce or prevent anxiety and depression among adolescents should take screen time into account as one of the triggers of anxiety and depression.”It is still unclear why some forms of screen time are associated with anxiety and depression, while other forms of screen time are not.For example, playing video games was not a predictor of either depression or anxiety, which may be because gaming has become more of a social activity. “Compared with their forerunners 15 to 20 years ago, the average video gamer is not socially isolated. It has been shown that more than 70% of gamers play their games with a friend, either physically together or online,” the researchers noted in their study.The researchers also found some evidence that interacting with media that promoted upward social comparisons was associated with reductions in self-esteem, which in turn was associated with increases in depressive symptoms.“The most important caveat is that we believe that content is key. However, we did not examine content (yet). I do not believe that the ‘simple’ act of engaging in screen time has negative consequences, but what adolescents expose themselves to while engaging in screen time. Thus, future research should focus on what kind of content triggers anxiety and depression in adolescents,” Boers explained.The studies, “Association of Screen Time and Depression in Adolescence” and “Temporal Associations of Screen Time and Anxiety Symptoms Among Adolescents“, were authored by Elroy Boers, Mohammad H. Afzali, Nicola Newton, and Patricia Conrod. Share read more
Jan 4, 2010 (CIDRAP News) – Large trials in three countries—the United States, Hungary, and China—recently confirmed the safety and efficacy of H1N1 vaccines, yielding new insights on how to best use vaccines in a pandemic setting.The three studies appeared in the Jan 2 issue of The Lancet. All involve some of the pandemic H1N1 vaccines that are already approved and are in use. The new reports flesh out preliminary findings that regulators used to make their decisions in the summer and fall of 2009 but differed on the effectiveness of immune-boosting adjuvants.Each of the three studies used a different design that could help public health officials fine-tune their vaccination strategies.For example, in the US study, even the lowest of three doses studied—7.5 micrograms (mcg) of antigen—produced a strong response in adults, but the findings suggest younger children likely need two doses. And in the Hungarian study, coadminstration of pandemic and seasonal flu vaccines was safe and effective.Investigators from all three countries reported no deaths from the vaccine, with mostly mild or moderate adverse reactions, confirming the pandemic vaccine safety assessments of national authorities and World Health Organization (WHO) experts.US findings confirm vaccine strategyThe US study consisted of two phase 2 trials of Sanofi’s licensed pandemic H1N1 vaccine: one in adults (497 ages 18 to 64 and 352 older than 65) and one in children (229 ages 6 to 35 months and 245 ages 3 to 9 years). Adults received one of three antigen doses 7.5, 15, or 30 mcg, while children received either 7.5- or 15-mcg doses. Researchers enrolled participants from 35 clinical sites, representing 18 states.The investigators took serum samples before and 21 days after vaccination. Participants or their parents kept safety diaries for 7 days after immunization.Adults of both age-groups showed a strong immune response to all vaccine doses, but the response was higher in those younger than 65. Seroprotection rates ranged from 93% to 100%. After 21 days, immune response to the vaccine in children was lower than for adults.Injection-site pain and tenderness was the most frequent reaction reported in all groups, and the rates of systemic reactions were about the same in the vaccine and placebo groups.The researchers concluded that even the lowest antigen dose they used in adults, which contained half of the amount used in the nation’s approved vaccines, exceeded the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) immunogenicity requirements for the age-groups. They wrote that their findings confirm that just one dose is needed in adults and that children younger than 9 years probably need two doses to meet the FDA’s efficacy criteria.Cross-reactive immune response was higher in adults who had received their seasonal flu vaccine in the five previous seasons, but they’re not sure if seasonal immunization or some other factor, such as exposure to similar influenza strains, could have contributed to the baseline response pattern they observed. However, they didn’t see a greater response to the pandemic virus among people born before 1957 who may have been exposed to other H1N1 subtypes.Safety findings suggest the profile of the pandemic vaccine is similar to that of seasonal flu vaccines, the group wrote. They added that they are still studying the efficacy and safety of a two-dose vaccine regimen in children.Hungarians compare seasonal, H1N1 vaccinesIn the Hungarian study, researchers compared the safety and efficacy of the country’s licensed pandemic vaccine in adults when administered alone and alongside the seasonal flu vaccine.The pandemic vaccine they evaluated is made by Omnivest and is a whole-virus inactivated vaccine that contains 6 mcg of antigen per dose along with an aluminum phosphate adjuvant. Omnivest, based in Hungary, also makes the country’s seasonal flu vaccine and a prepandemic H5N1 vaccine. Hungary began its pandemic vaccine campaign at the end of September.The study group included 203 adults ages 18 to 60 and 152 adults older than 60.Investigators tested participants’ serum before vaccine administration and at 21 days after immunization. They collected safety information by phone 1, 2, 3, and 7 days after vaccination, as well as during follow-up visits. Subjects were also asked to take their temperatures on days 1, 2, and 3 and to record any side effects on diary cards.Adverse events were mild and similar to seasonal flu vaccine, mostly appearing the day after immunization and resolving by the second or third day. No difference in local reaction was noted between groups that received just the pandemic vaccine and groups that received both at the same time.People who received just the pandemic vaccine showed a strong immune response against the pandemic H1N1 virus, and those who received both vaccines showed a strong response against the pandemic strain, plus the seasonal strains.Baseline testing showed little preexisting protection against the pandemic strain, which they said might be partly explained by very little pandemic H1N1 activity in Hungary in August 2009 when trial was conducted.The researchers concluded that their findings suggest one dose of the pandemic vaccine is enough for both adults and seniors. “Inclusion of elderly participants is important, since influenza-based morbidity and mortality increase with age, especially for individuals with high-risk diseases,” they wrote.They also added that the finding that pandemic H1N1 and seasonal flu vaccine coadministration is safe and effective is useful for pandemic planners who must manage vaccine logistics.Also, they wrote that the favorable efficacy of a 6-mcg adjuvanted vaccine is useful for setting dose-sparing strategies in a pandemic setting when vaccine supply falls short of demand. Vaccines approved in the United States, for example, contain 15 mcg of antigen per dose.Chinese study tests multiple formulationsChinese researchers tested eight formulations of pandemic H1N1 vaccine made by 10 of the country’s manufacturers, plus a placebo. The multicenter study involved 12,691 people age 3 and older who received two doses 21 days apart.The eight formulations included adjuvanted and unadjuvanted versions of split-virus vaccines that contained 7.5, 15, and 30 mcg of antigen per dose. Researchers also evaluated whole-virus adjuvanted pandemic H1N1 vaccines that contained 5 or 10 mcg per dose.Serum samples were obtained at baseline, at 21 days (before the second dose was given), and at 21 days after the second dose. Some centers also took serum samples 14 days after the second dose.Researchers observed participants for 30 minutes after vaccination and asked subject to use diary cards for the next 3 days to record any adverse events.Seroprotection at day 21 ranged from 69.5% for the adjuvanted 7.5-mcg split-virus formulation to 92.8% for the unadjuvanted 30-mcg split-virus pandemic vaccine.Protection after one dose 7.5-mcg dose of the unadjuvanted split-virus vaccine was 86.5%. The same vaccine met European Union protection requirements for licensing for all age-groups that were studied, but a second dose in children boosted seroprotection to 97.7%.All eight formulations from the 10 research sites were well tolerated, the investigators reported. Severe adverse events occurred in 69 vaccine recipients, compared with one who received placebo. The most common was fever, which occurred in 25 participants.Detectable baseline antibody titers were seen in 17.8% of the vaccine group and 19% of the placebo group. Levels were lower in children, but did not vary significantly between the other age-groups.The researchers found that the boosting effect of the second dose was more pronounced in children, but had limited effect in other groups.Though the group found that all versions of the vaccine were safe and effective, they noted that the nonadjuvanted 7.5-mcg formulation induced almost the same immune response as vaccine formulations containing more antigen, which could be useful during a pandemic when vaccine is in short supply. However, they added that children ages 3 to 12 may need a second dose to achieve acceptable protection.Also, they said the findings suggest the adjuvanted formulations were less effective, which was perplexing and might relate to aluminum absorption causing a delay in antigen release.Experts: studies reassuring, but questions remainTwo editorials in the same issue of The Lancet added some perspective on the findings of the three studies.In commenting on the immunogenicity findings, Australian experts Heath Kelly from the Victorian Infectious Disease Reference in Melbourne and Ian Barr from the WHO’s collaborating center in Melbourne wrote that the studies build on evidence from other vaccine producers that one dose is enough for healthy adults.They pointed out, though, that the studies don’t all agree on whether adjuvants are an ideal dose-sparing strategy. The US and Hungarian studies show some support for adjuvant use, but the Chinese study suggests that a low-dose unadjuvanted vaccine is preferable for adults.The three studies cover a range of the healthy population, Kelly and Barr note, but more trials are needed to explore pandemic H1N1 vaccine use in groups that have been more severely affected by the virus, such as pregnant women, native populations, and those with underlying conditions such as morbid obesity.They said that, though the studies suggest one dose is enough to protect adults and two doses are ideal for children younger than 9, countries must still grapple with how to best target their pandemic vaccine supplies.Addressing the safety aspects of the study were three experts from the quality and safety division of the WHO’s vaccine department, Dina Pfeifer, Claudia Alfonso, and David Wood. They wrote that the three studies are important because they report a body of safety data that was previously seen only by regulators.They wrote that though randomized trials are valuable, postmarketing surveillance is crucial for detecting rare events. The authors added the adverse events patterns are consistent with those seen for the seasonal flu vaccine, and systemic effects reported among children in the US study are consistent with background rates for respiratory infections in the same age-group.Understanding adverse events with concurrent use of seasonal and pandemic vaccine is useful, the WHO group wrote, and other vaccine combinations are also worthy of safety studies, such as coadministration of pandemic and pneumococcal vaccines.The three studies support December 2009 WHO advisory group conclusion that so far no unexpected safety concerns have arisen from any pandemic H1N1 vaccine that countries are using in immunization campaigns. However, they reiterated cautions that the world is in a relatively early stage of pandemic vaccination and that ongoing safety monitoring is needed, with rapid reporting of findings.”The ongoing worldwide safety evaluation of the pandemic H1N1 vaccines is unprecedented and will provide the most documented safety profile of any vaccine in history,” the WHO group concluded.Plennevaux E, Sheldon E, Blatter M, et al. Immune response after a single vaccination against 2009 influenza A H1N1 in USA: a preliminary report of two randomized controlled phase 2 trials. Lancet 2010 Jan 2;375(9708):41-8 [Full text]Vajo Z, Tamas F, Sinka L, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 vaccine when administered alone or simultaneously with seasonal influenza vaccine for the 2009-10 influenza season: a multicentre, randomized controlled trial. Lancet 2010 Jan 2;375(9708):49-55 [Full text]Liang X-F, Wang H-Q, Wang J-Z, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 vaccines in China: a multicentre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2010 Jan 2;375(9708):56-66 [Full text]Kelly H, Barr I. Large trials confirm immunogenicity of H1N1 vaccines. (Editorial) Lancet 2010 Jan 2;375(9708):6-8 [Full text]Pfeifer D, Alfonso C, Wood D. Defining the safety profile of pandemic influenza vaccines. (Editorial) Lancet 2010 Jan 2;375(9708):9-11 [Full text] read more
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Automotive Aftermarket Association Southeast Chairman of the Board Jarrett Liles has announced the expansion of the AAAS staff to provide greater focus on governmental relations. In September, the board voted unanimously to fund a new staff position in order for the association to better provide crucial legislative and regulatory advocacy on behalf of its members and the industry. AdvertisementClick Here to Read MoreAdvertisementThe director of government relations and field services position will devote time and energy to lobbying activities for AAAS on a state and national level, as well as strengthen the association’s Political Action Committee. On Dec. 1, Matt Ward joined the AAAS staff to fill this important position. Chairman Liles stated, “We are proud to have Matt Ward join the AAAS Staff. I am confident that he will work well with our membership and other aftermarket organizations to make sure lawmakers hear our voices and are aware of how legislation and policies affect the aftermarket industry. We look forward to seeing Matt in action at the Capitol Days events planned in all four of our service area state capitols: Montgomery, Atlanta, Tallahassee and Jackson early in 2017.”An Auburn University graduate, Ward comes to AAAS from the Alabama Retired State Employees’ Association (ARSEA). While with ARSEA, Ward served as the local government coordinator, where his efforts focused on protecting and improving retirement benefits for municipalities and counties participating in the retirement systems of Alabama. Ward worked closely with the ARSEA PAC, assisting in fundraising and strategic contribution of funds in statewide, municipal and county races. He was instrumental in helping grow the membership of ARSEA during his time there. Ward is no stranger to the automotive aftermarket and has previously served as an intern at AAAS working on membership growth. Advertisement“I am really excited to join the AAAS staff. My goal is to hit the ground running to help grow and improve what is already a fantastic association. We will increase our presence in the state capitols and we will build and expand participation in the AAAS Political Action Committee. AAAS has tremendous volunteers and a talented staff that have achieved so much already. We face many challenges ahead, but the future is bright and I am very happy to be a part of this remarkable team,” said Ward. read more
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UK-based ferry operator P&O Ferries has reported that the number of passengers crossing the English Channel on its services in August was the highest for any month since 2003.P&O Ferries carried 1,177,053 people between Dover and Calais last month, a 2.5 per cent increase on the previous year and the highest monthly figure since August 2003.The news follows a strong performance in July in which P&O Ferries carried more units of freight across the English Channel – 123,000 in total – than in any other month in its modern history.The Dover-based company, which also operates routes across the North Sea and the Irish Sea, attributed the strong passenger numbers to its investment in a new class of super-ferry which has enhanced capacity, as well as tourists capitalizing on the continuing economic recovery in the region.Industrial action by French seamen which closed the port of Calais for several days during the peak season has not affected the upward trajectory.“This summer has been one of the most challenging ever for cross-Channel travel and I am very pleased that P&O Ferries has helped to keep tourists and freight moving between Britain and France in huge numbers,” Helen Deeble, Chief Executive of P&O Ferries, said.“We expect further busy periods during the half-term holiday and also the winter sports season, with a growing number of skiers choosing to drive to the Alps via one of our ferries rather than fly.”P&O Ferries, which brought a sixth ship back into service on the English Channel in July in order to increase capacity, says it has also seen additional demand because of the migrant disruptions at Eurotunnel. read more
Offshore Energy Exhibition & Conference 2015 has started today in Amsterdam. The two day event which ends tomorrow, October 14, has gathered the leading industry professionals from various offshore energy sectors.This year, the event features over 650 exhibiting companies, and more than 13,500 offshore professionals.The theme of the event is Investing in future of energy, and more than 80 speakers representing some of the biggest industry players will discuss it.The event that was officially launched today at 10 am at Amsterdam RAI covers oil & gas, offshore wind, and wave and tidal sectors.Wave and tidal sectors will be discussed in more detail during the second day of the conference on a special event dedicated to marine energy that will offer the attendees an insight in the latest developments in the aforementioned sectors, as well salinity power and ocean thermal energy conversion.Check out the gallery to get a glimpse of Offshore Energy 2015. read more
The Law Society has called on the government to regulate the home information pack (HIP) industry to protect home buyers from secret referral fees paid to estate agents. Following a claim by a Channel 4 News investigation that pack prices could be inflated by more than £100 to cover referral payments by pack providers to estate agents, Law Society president Paul Marsh urged home sellers to check the real cost of packs. Marsh told the programme that secret commissions are ‘quite wrong’ and sellers should ask for details of exact costs to discover if the agent is charging them more than it should. He said that the Law Society had told Yvette Cooper, housing minister at the time HIPS were introduced in 2007, that the change would create a billion-pound industry that needed to be properly regulated. ‘We believe the government should put in place effective regulation to make sure there is transparency throughout the system, so the public know what they’re paying for, who’s getting what and that they are getting value for money,’ said Marsh. read more